Types of Stones :::::::

What is a Kidney Stone? Causes And Types Of Stones What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Stones? How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed? What Are The Treatment Options For Kidney Stones? How Can Kidney Stones Be Prevented? Types of Stones Treating Kidney Stones with the Lithotripsy Technology How the Lithotripter
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Uric Acid Stones

Hyperuricosuria (high levels of uric acid in the urine) can result from eating an excessive amount of animal protein including red meat, fish, poultry and pork and can oftentimes be controlled with diet.

For those individuals in whom dietary measures fail, medications can be used, including a drug called Allopurinol which reduces uric acid levels or Potassium citrate to reduce acidity of the urine.

Gout, a type of inflammatory arthritis is caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood, called hyperuricemia which can lead to hyperuricosuria and the formation of kidney stones. This disorder requires specific drug treatment.


Struvite Stones

Struvite stones are composed of magnesium, phosphate, and ammonium. They can be very difficult stones to treat, because they result from infection of the urinary tract that can recur even after the stones have been removed. This type of stone can fill the entire inside of the kidney, spreading into the smallest passages, blocking drainage of urine, and resulting in severe kidney damage.

Struvite stones occur mainly due to infection with a certain type of bacteria that tends to flourish and invade the kidney.

One should take antibiotics when the doctor determines that it is necessary to avoid the development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Scientists have found that an agent called acetohydraxamic acid (AHA), can be used to inhibit struvite stone formation by blocking a chemical action caused by the invading bacteria.


Cystine Stones

Another type of stone occurs in individuals with the relatively rare inherited defect of kidney function causing cystinuria. In this disorder, the amino acid cystine overloads the urine where it crystallizes and forms stones. Prevention of cystine stones is difficult, because there is no definitive treatment.

The main therapy is for the individual to drink enough water to dissolve the cystine that escapes into the urine each day. This therapy can be difficult, because cystine is eliminated continuously, and so the individual may be required to drink over a gallon of water every 24 hours. At night, about a third of a gallon of water may be consumed on this regimen, filling the bladder repeatedly and interfering with sleep.

Sometimes when stones cannot be controlled through increased fluid consumption, the drug D-penicillamine or Tiopronin (Thiola) is administered to make the cystine more soluble.

Though kidney stones can be very painful, it's important to remember that all tests, surgeries, procedures and medications carry benefits and risks. In order to make an informed decision about the best option for you, be sure to ask your physician to explain the benefits, risks and costs of each option.

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